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Banking Essentials - Part I

This pathway will walk us through the basics of banks, starting with some of the different types and their main functions, then starting to look at the regulation faced by the banks, both before and after the Global Financial Crisis.

Greenwashing

Greenwashing is the act of distributing false information about something being more environmentally friendly than it actually is.

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Tackling the Cost of Living Crisis

In this video, Max discusses the cost-of-living crisis currently enveloping the UK. He examines its impact on households as well as the overall economy.

CSR and Sustainability in Financial Services

In the first video of this two-part video series, Elisa introduces us to sustainability. She begins by looking at the difference between sustainability and corporate social responsibility, two terms that can be easily confused.

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Equity Index Options Valuation

Equity Index Options Valuation

Lindsey Matthews

30 years: Risk management & derivatives trading

In this video, Lindsey starts by explaining how to price equity options. He further explains what equity index futures are, and finishes by talking about equity index options.

In this video, Lindsey starts by explaining how to price equity options. He further explains what equity index futures are, and finishes by talking about equity index options.

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Equity Index Options Valuation

14 mins 36 secs

Overview

Equity options can also be priced using the simple options valuation model outlined. We need to start by determining the forward price and the volatility of the underlying. Once these values have been determined, we can calculate the expected payoffs at certain points in the model, as well as the associated value at expiry. We can also trade equity index futures as well as options on the indices using the same model.

Key learning objectives:

  • Outline how to price equity options

  • Understand equity index futures

  • Outline how to price equity index futures

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Summary

How do we price equity options? 

Assume we want to calculate the value of options expiring in 3.5 months time. We first need to calculate the 3.5 month forward on the same stock. We first need to calculate the interest to finance a long position in one of the shares. This is calculated by interest x stock price x time. To this, we need to deduct any benefits to owning the stock, i.e. dividends. Therefore forward price is determined as: Spot + Costs of holding - Benefits. 

Now we have calculated the forward price, we can calculate the prices of the 3.5 month options using the same options valuation model Lindsey has outlined in other videos. 

Again, we need the volatility of the underlying to calculate the width of the bars, calculated by the forward price x volatility x square root of time. Once the bar sizes have been calculated, we can determine which are in the money, the expected payoffs and then the respective values at maturity. 

What are equity index futures? 

Equity index futures allow the trading of the level of an equity index such as the S&P 500 or the FTSE 100. 

Determining the value of the equity index futures is the same as determining the future price of an individual stock. We need to know the risk-free rate, how long to expiry and whether there are any benefits to holding the index. The fair value for the futures price is therefore the spot price + Costs - Benefits. 

What are equity index options?

Equity index options exist as both options on futures and options on the underlying index. Equity index options can be valued using the simple valuation model outlined by lindsey, alternatively the prices of options on indices should be available online. 

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Lindsey Matthews

Lindsey Matthews

Lindsey runs Perfordiant, an investment risk and performance consulting firm. He has worked in financial markets since 1992. Lindsey became an MD in fixed income and equities, ran a Risk function, and was on the management team of an Asset Management fintech business. Lindsey is now a Visiting Fellow at the Henley Business School, and resides on the board of CFA UK.

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